Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration. In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains particularly in the back, and headaches.
Yellow fever is caused by yellow fever virus, a 40– to 50-nm-wide enveloped RNA virus, the type species and namesake of the family Flaviviridae. The disease is caused by yellow fever virus and is spread by the bite of an infected female mosquito. It infects only humans, other primates, and several types of mosquitoes.
The disease originated in Africa and spread to South America with the slave trade in the 17th century. Since the 17th century, several major outbreaks of the disease have occurred in the Americas, Africa, and Europe. In the 18th and 19th centuries, yellow fever was seen as one of the most dangerous infectious diseases.
Things to know before vaccinating the yellow fever.
- Travelers should be vaccinated against yellow fever at least 10 days before travel.
- Keep in mind that the nearest yellow fever vaccination clinic may be some distance away from where you live, and appointments may be limited. Contact the clinic ahead of time to make sure the clinic has the vaccine.
- Once vaccinated, you will receive a “yellow card,” known as an International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis. Travelers should bring this with you on your trip. Some countries require all travelers to show proof of yellow fever vaccination before entering the country.